The Fundamental Concepts

the-fundamental-conceptsA nanometer is the billionth part of a meter. In order to achieve a sense of scale, imagine that the double helix from the DNA measure 2 nm, while the atoms and the molecules vary from 0.12 to 0.15 nm. The smallest known and measured life form observed is a bacteria from the order Mycoplasma, measuring 200 nm in length. The limit is set according to the size of different atoms. The lower limit is defined by the hydrogen atoms, measuring a quarter of a nm in diameter.

When looking at a material at a nanoscale size, scientists have observed that as the size decreases, different odd effects start to appear. These are called quantum size effect. They are most visible at the quantum realm point, at the distance of 100 nanometres or lower. At this nanoscale, materials seem to gain mechanical, electrical and optical properties which were not visible before. Some of them are the chance of surface area regarding the volume ratio. The copper becomes transparent at nanosize, aluminium becomes combustible, and gold becomes soluble.

The control researchers have at molecular and nano level have opened the road to many possibilities, including medical ones. The synthetic chemistry makes it possible for pharmacists to built up polymers and other chemical substances. This kind of approach over the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products raised the bar in the medical community. Enzymes can be designed to be attracted, pair and fold, so that they built a much more complex whole. This gives endless possibilities of construction of structures similar to the ones that already exist in nature. This means a great deal of hope for people waiting for organs or tissues transplants, and almost a 100% certitude that their body will accept the specially designed tissues.

The nanosystems are still in their incipient form, even if they already exist for almost 40 years. There is great hope in future discoveries and applications that would be of use for the human society.