What is Nanotechnology?

nanotechnologyAny atomic, molecular and supra molecular scale manipulation of the matter is called nanotechnology. Earlier, this field was referred to when scientists were manipulating atoms and molecules to fabricate different nano scale products. This field is widely known as molecular nanotechnology. The official description of the National Nanotechnology Initiative implies that nanotechnology is linked to the manipulation of molecules of matter sized between 1 and 100 nanometres.

The quantum mechanical effects of the scientific projects and researches applied between these scales directly influenced the definition of nanotechnology. This is the reason this big field is sometimes called at plural form, nanotechnologies or nanoscale technologies. This field is mainly sponsored by the army and high tech industries, which invest billions of dollar yearly to take advantage of the state of the art findings or numerous researchers around the world. By 2012, the Japanese Government invested 750 million dollars, the European Union 1.2 billion dollars and the US Government alone, 3.7 billion dollars.

The field of nanotechnologies research includes many different fields, such as organic chemistry, molecular biology, surface science, semiconductor physics, microfabrication or molecular engineering. The research applications are some of the most diverse, starting with the classic physics devices, and going up to molecular self assembly, which creates and develops new and revolutionary materials, with atomic scale control of the matter.

All the scientists directly related with this research field are looking with great hope to the future and implications of nanotechnology. It is useful for consumer products, biomaterials that produce energy, nanoelectronics and even nanomedicine. As all the new research fields, the outsiders and the media are looking at nanotechnology with great concern, especially for the toxicity it might produce to our planet, its effects on the worldwide economics, even apocalyptic scenarios. These debates between the government representatives and the fighters against nanotechnology introduced many rules and regulations that are mandatory for all the researchers.